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2019考研政治:哲学核心考点整理

作者: 张馨予 发布时间: 2021年08月03日 16:44:23

  1. 马哲是科学的世界观和方法论(一):哲学是系统化理论化的世界观,是世界观的理论体系

  (1)engesitichusiweihecunzaideguanxi(hezhediyi,youwutongyi)wentishizhexuedejibenwenti:①shirenhezhexuepaibiedoubunenghuibidewenti;②shijiejueqitazhexuewentideqianti;③shihuafenzhexuejibenpaibiedeyiju;④shirenmenshenghuozhongdejibenwenti。

  (2)yiqiezhexuedoubunengdiaoheweiwuzhuyiheweixinzhuyiliangdajibenpaibie,zheishizhexuededangxing。

  (3)weiwuzhuyizhuzhangwuzhidiyi、jingshendier,anshijiedebenlaimianmuqushuomingshijie,bufujiawailaichengfen。

  (4)weixinzhuyizhuzhangjingshendiyixing、wuzhidierxing。(bawoweixinzhuyidelianggejibenxingtai)

  ①zhuguanweixinzhuyibarendeganjue、guannianzuoweiweiyizhenshidecunzaiheshijiedebenyuan;(tangliuyuxiweiwu)

  ②keguanweixinzhuyibamouzhongtuoligerendejingshenbianweidulidecunzai,zuoweishijiebenyuanhewanwuchuangzaozhe。

  jiangrenshiguochengzhongdeganxingjieduankuada、jueduihua,daozhizhuguanweixinzhuyi。jiangrenshiguochengzhongdelixingjieduankuada、jueduihua,daozhikeguanweixinzhuyi。

  (5)weixinzhuyichanshengdegenyuan:①shehuilishigenyuan、②jiejigenyuan、③renshilungenyuan(ganjueshipingzhang,bukezhilun)

  (6)jiuweiwuzhuyidequexian:jixiexing、xingershangxuexing、buchedixing,meiyouquelikexuedeshijianguan。

  (7)makesizhuyidetezheng:(makesizuiweidadegongxian:chuangliweiwushiguan;) (jiuweiwubanjiezishiyinweiziranguanweiwu,lishiguanweixin;)①jiejixing---gongkaishenmingweisheifuwu;(yiqiebianzhengfadourenweishijieshipubianlianxide,fazhanbianhuade。meiyourenweishijietongyi)

  ②shijianxing---qiangdiaolilunduishijiandeyilaiguanxi,lilunfanguolaiyouzhidaoshijian。(jiejuewentidechufadian----shijian)

  ③gemingxingyukexuexingdetongyi。makesihejiuweiwuzuizhuyaoqubie:weiwushiguan。

  (8)mazheyujutikexuedeguanxi:yibanyugebie;chouxiangyujuti;zhidaoyubeizhidao;pubianyuteshu。gongxingyugexing

  2. 辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的作用(多选把握)(一)

  (1)jieshirenleishehuidebenzhihefazhanguilv,weiwomenlijieshehuitigongsixiangwuqi。weixinbushigaizaoshijiedesixiangwuqi

  (2)weiwomenrenshishehuitigonglebianzhengfayuanze,womenyaoyonglianxihefazhandeguandianrenshishehui。

  (3)bangzhurenmenshulizhengquedeshijieguan、renshengguanhejiazhiguan。(shulisanguan)

  (4)tigaorenmenduishehuifazhan、shehuiguanliguilvderenshiheyunyongnengli。

  3. 马哲和西方哲学:反对科学主义但重视科学精神,反对抽象人本主义但重视人文精神(一)

  (1)kexuezhuyifoudingzhexueshijieguangongneng,tuichongkexuezhishi,fangqishijieguandeyanjiu。

  (2)renbenzhuyifanduikexuehelixing,qiangdiaorendecunzaidebentilun(bushiyirenweiben),juyoufeilixingzhuyidetedian。

  4. 物质观体现唯物自然观和历史观、唯物论与辩证法、本体论与认识论的统一(二)。

  (1)wuzhishibuyilaiyurendeyishibingnengweirendeyishisuofanyingdekeguanshizai。wuzhidingyideyiyi:sangehuaqingjiexian---tongweixinzhuyiheeryuanlun、tongbukezhilun、tongjiuweiwuzhuyi。(zhengquelijiewuzhifanchouyaobawoziranwuzhideduoyangxing,keguanshizaixing。)

  (wuzhihewuzhifanchoushidiyixinghedierxingdeguanxi,wuzhihewuzhixingtaishigongxinghegexingdeguanxi。)(yongsuweiwudecuowushimoshaleyishidezhuguantezheng。)

  (2)keguanshizaishiwuzhidegongtongdeyibanbenzhi,tatongguoyundongbiaoxianchulai。shijieshangchuleyundongzhedewuzhizhiwaishenmeyemeiyou。

  (3)yundongshiwuzhidecunzaifangshihegenbenshuxing。yundonghewuzhibukefenli,shexiangmeiyouyundongdewuzhishijixieweiwulun;shexiangmeiyouwuzhideyundongshiweixinlun。yundonghejingzhidoushiwuzhideguyoushuxing,yundongjuedui,jingzhixiangdui,tamenxianghubaohan。

  (4)jingzhishiyundongdeteshuzhuangtai。xiangduijingzhishishiwuchengduoyangxing,shiqufenshiwujichu,hengliangshiwuyundongchidu。

  (5)shijianshirennengdongdigaizaowuzhishijiededuixiangxinghuodong。xingshi:shengchan、chulihebiangeshehuiguanxihekexueshiyan。

  (6)shijianyousangejibentezheng:keguanxianshixing、zijuenengdongxingheshehuilishixing。shijiansanhuanjie:mude、shouduan、jieguofankui。

  (7)zhutishizhicongshishijianhuodongherenshihuodongderen,ketishizhutihuodongduixiangdezonghe。shijianhuodongjiushiyizhuti、zhongjieheketiweijibengujiadedongtaixitong,tongguoshijianhuodongshiketizhutihua,shizhutiketihua。

  5. 自在世界和人类世界及其与人的实践活动的关系(二)

  (1)zhuguanshijie:rendeyishi、guannianshijie,shirendetounaofanyinghebawowuzhishijiedejingshenhuodong、xinlihuodongdezonghe;(cunzaizhuyisuoweidecunzaishizhi“gerendecunzai”),(zhutiheketixianghuzuoyongdeshizhishizhutiheketizhijiandexiandinghechaoyuedeguanxi)

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